India’s 1.5 percent or more than 21 lakh hectares net sown area between 1990 and 2003 have gone to non-farm activity. The actual figures could be much higher. If we accept 21 lakh hectares of crop land which is diverted to non-agricultural uses and if this area was brought under wheat then it would amount to a mind-boggling 57 lakh tones of produce, which could have fed more than 43 million hungry people every year. In Uttar Pradesh 68.6 percent land is cultivated and 31.4 percent land is under non farm uses. Only seven percent land is under forest, when according to forest policy there should be one-third forest cover for healthy environment. Adverse environmental impact is now reflected in falling yield and increasing other fallow and current fallow land as it is becoming uneconomical to cultivate. For example in Sultanpur, Pratapgarh, Lucknow and Unnao districts other and current fallow lands have increased up to 15.0 percent. In U.P. cereal production was 41.8 million metric tones in 2001-02 which has fallen to 37.6 million metric tones in 2004-05 due to land degradation.
In Central region of U.P. the growth of land put to non-agricultural use in rural areas has risen to 19.1 percent during 2001-08. Similarly growth rate of land put to non agricultural uses in Bundelkhand has gone up to 17.6 percent in rural areas. In Lucknow division we find that during 2004-05 from an area of 2420134 hectare the production was 4958114 metric tones, while during 2005-06 the area decreased to 2314603 hectare and with it the production also decreased to 4721101 metric tones.
Therefore, it is most essential to identify the non-agricultural infertile land through satellite imageries and on the basis of data the area available should be compulsorily utilized for urbanization.Million plus cities should not be allowed to further grow by putting ban on expansion of industries or any kind of activities which are not directly required for the cities. In this way urbanization would grow in un-urbanized areas and thus barren waste lands would be easily available for urban use. Agricultural land should not be allowed at any cost to be used for non farm activities. There should be strict check and control on the basis of clear cut formulated policies at the state and local level so that an all round sustainable development should be achieved and that too within a short period of time. If at all it is so essential to acquire the agricultural land then on the basis of average cost of the produce at present and future prices, it should be calculated for 30 years and paid to farmers every year. During 30 years farmers would be able to adopt non-farm livelihood as it is already in practice in Haryana State.
Lucknow district occupies about 2519 sq. km. area in Central region of Uttar Pradesh and it is privileged with having the capital city of the most populated state of India. Lucknow district is having eight blocks, namely, Malihabad, Mal, Bakshi-ka-Talab, Kakori, Chinhat, Sarojininagar, Gosaiganj and Mohanlalganj. Lucknow the capital city which is now a metropolis with 2.25 million population (2001) is spreading quite fast on its peripheral areas and encroaching on adjoining fertile agricultural land of rural blocks mainly Sarojininagar, Chinhat, Mohanlalganj, Mal and Bakshi-ka-Talab. Lucknow city along with Cantonment was occupying only 50 sq. km. in 1950, which spread on 110 sq.km. in 1971, 146 sq.km. in 1981, 338 sq.km. in 1991 and about 450 sq.km. in 2001. In 1981 its population was 1.08 million which doubled in 20 years to 2.25 million in 2001 and in next 20 years, i.e. 2021 it is expected to be 4.50 million.
Till 1991 in U.P. land put to non-agricultural uses was around eight percent and by the beginning of 2000 the land put to non-agricultural uses increased to around nine percent. In 2008 the land put to non-agricultural uses occupies around 11.0 percent of the geographical area of Uttar Pradesh. The increasing size of land put to non-agricultural uses and recently decline in net area sown in rural areas is an indication that the prime agricultural land is fast being encroached by fringes of towns and cities and in due course of time they would become the part of urban land. Earlier land put to non-agricultural uses was generally meant that the land is being used as a common land for thrashing the harvested crops, exhibition grounds, playgrounds and other amenities and it was well within eight percent of the geographical area. Now with the beginning of the 21st century it is especially found that around some of the fast growing cities and towns a large chunk of fertile land is being purchased and left by the industrialists, colonizers and individual entrepreneurs for future use as urban land. It is generally found that the expansion of cities is taking place on commercially viable areas ignoring the importance of environment and land meant for cultivation purposes. Around every city and town and in every district there are plenty of wastelands, which could have been brought under urbanization if there was any such law to restrict and spare the agricultural land and also to protect environment.
The farmers on urban fringes are compelled and lured to sell their land to urban people and they loose their centuries old traditional livelihood from farming forever. Farmers are left only with their dwellings and it is found that once they become landless, for generations they do not become capable to earn their proper livelihood from non-farm occupations. Mostly they work as a casual labourers in their neighbourhood of city and their socio-economic condition remain deplorable for decades together.
Lucknow being the capital city has a continuously fast process of occupying the neighbouring fertile land of the villages. The result is during last 13 years, i.e. between 1994-95 and 2007-08, the growth rate of land put to non-agricultural uses in neighbouring rural areas of Lucknow metropolis was recorded 45.1 percent. For example, in Sarojininagar block the land put to non-agricultural uses grew to 109.8 percent, Chinhat block 83.3 percent, Mohanlalganj block 43.7 percent, Gosaiganj block 34.0 percent, Mal block 30.0 percent and in Bakshi-ka-Talab block 21.5 percent. If we see the proportion of geographical area of Chinhat block brought under land put to non-agricultural uses was maximum in Lucknow district, i.e. 31.3 percent in 2008.
It is an interesting study to survey few villages and their households, enquiring about the value of land received and its utilization, their changing occupation and income and their overall socio-economic and living conditions. This would guide us how to control the agricultural land brought to non-agricultural uses and how to plan the rehabilitation of agricultural farmers and their families before the city encroaches in an unplanned manner. In Lucknow metropolitan city, after independence the settlements of villages which had lost their valuable agricultural land are still existing and the plight of their dwellers is quite obvious.
Among two, one slow and another fast urbanizing villages i.e. Dhawan and Shivpuri respectively are located adjacent to eastern side of Lucknow metropolis in Chinhat Block were identified for sample survey. The geographical area of Dhawan Village was 200 hectare and Shivpuri 300 hectare. Among these villages Dhawan is left with only about 50 hectare of agricultural land when in Shivpuri most of the land is occupied in urban process. There are 250 households in Dhawan village with 3500 population when in Shivpuri 5000 households are there with 15,9000 population. Most of the houses in both the villages are pucca. Religion wise only less than 10 percent population belong to minority. Caste wise majority population belong to OBC (Other Backward Caste). In records 84 households (64 Hindu, 20 Muslim) in Dhawan Village and 341 (326 Hindu and 15 Muslims) in Shivpuri village belongs to BPL (Below Poverty Level) category who are entitled for various benefits under Government schemes.
In Dhawan village about six ponds were there which were perennial but today only three ponds are left perennial and one pond non perennial. In Shivpuri only one pond was perennial earlier, which is now non perennial. In both the villages the ground water is about 20 to 25 feet below the ground surface, but for perennial boring farmers go up to 120 feet deep. In remaining agricultural land mainly wheat and paddy is grown and the productivity is lowered to 5 to 10 quintal per bigha and food grain is retained for only household consumption, except vegetable is sold in the market. Most of the households have almost shifted their dependence on non farm activities, as the remaining agricultural land has become non productive and it is in the process of selling with the hope of better prices for urbanization which is imposed. Lands purchased by Government by force are paid only less than Rs. 50,000/- per bigha when private parties are paying in millions of rupees (present rate is between Rs. 3 to 6 million). It is highly objectionable that farmers are deprived by Government by force and their livelihood is snatched through spurious laws. It is high time that Government must adopt the Haryana pattern where the productivity of land is calculated and the value is paid to the farmers for 30 years with consideration of cost escalation of agricultural produce during the years. It is the proper method through which farmers would slowly adopt to adjust with the non-farm livelihood, otherwise it is injustice to impose least value of land.
During rainy season both villages suffer from the effects of bad drainage system. Household of both the villages mostly depend upon private hand pumps, except few households depends on public hand pumps mark IV. Households suffer mainly by stomach diseases, fever, cough, blood pressure, small pox and sugar but none of these villages have proper health centre. About 15.0 percent natives of these villages have their own toilets. When 60.0 percent newly settled households have their own toilets. There is a lot to do to improve the hygienic condition in these villages. There is co-ed primary-middle school in Dhawan village when in Shivpuri three primary-middle schools are there, however children of affluent class go out for convent education i.e. English medium education.
Under Indra Awas Yojana 11 houses are constructed in Dhawan village when in Shivpuri village 42 houses are constructed. In both the villages 50 to 80 percent households have got T.V., Mobile phone and scooter/motor bike, when VCD, fridge, and four wheelers are rare in their household assets. No community or caste tension is reported in both the villages, but few police cases are recorded under crimes. There are also few court cases due to property and land compensation claims. Over all it is a big question before the uneducated native youth and working age population in both the villages that how to adjust with the changing scenario from centuries old agricultural dependence to non agricultural non-acquainted alien means of livelihood.
Over all 120 households were surveyed for this study. Total 60 households from each Dhawan and Shivpuri villages were identified belonging to their dominant occupations. Cultivators, animal husbandry, business, agricultural labourers non agricultural labourer and services. Thus information of 354 people of Dhawan and 365 of Shivpuri village were recorded. In Shivpuri sex ratio was recorded 1006 females per thousand males because here SC households are comparatively more in household sample and higher castes households are less in comparison to Dhawan village where sex ratio was found 989. (See Table-1)
Out of total surveyed population in Dhawan village nine percent are in the age group of 0-5, 23.5 percent in 6-14, 64.4 percent in 15-60 and 3.1 percent in 60 plus age group. When in Shivpuri village 0-5 age group children are 7.7 percent, 6-14 children are 25.8 percent, 15-60 working age group in 66.0 percent and old age of 60 plus are only 0.6 percent. Children and old age dependents are slightly more in Dhawan village i.e. 35.6 percent than Shivpuri village with 34.0 percent .(See Table-2)
In both Dhawan and Shivpuri villages people engaged in different activities are accounted and found it differed due to more available cultivable land in Dhawan village than in Shivpuri village which is almost urbanized. In Dhawan village 12.0 percent people are self employed, when in Shivpuri only 5.3 percent are self employed. In Dhawan regular salaried employees are two percent, when Shivpuri they are three percent. In primary activities six percent percent people are engaged in Dhawan village when in Shivpuri only two percent people are engaged. In Dhawan non agricultural labourers are only four percent when in Shivpuri they are 11.5 percent. Just opposite in Dhawan one percent are agricultural labourers when in Shivpuri it is less then 0.2 percent . In Dhawan unemployment is only five percent when in Shivpuri where almost all the agricultural land is urbanized, unemployment is 12.0 percent. In household work, where mainly females are found in both the villages i.e. Dhawan and Shivpuri. It is 21.0 and 22.5 percent respectively. In household and other activity also mainly females are engaged the proportion is the same in both villages i.e. two percent. In Dhawan 40.0 percent and in Shivpuri 34.5 percent students are recorded, which deferred due to more concentration of economically weaker sections in Shivpuri than Dhawan village. Non school age children and old age dependents are seven percent in each of the surveyed villages. (See Table-3)
Land Acquisition and Compensation
Till nineties agricultural land in Dhawan and Shivpuri villages was about 216 and 147 bigha which was owned by 35 and 27 households respectively. At the time of household survey it was reported that from both Dhawan and Shivpuri villages about 83.0 and 45.0 percent households respectively sold their lands, partially or completely. From Dhawan village 66.7 percent agricultural land was sold while from Shivpuri village 58.2 percent agricultural land was sold. Since agricultural land in both the villages was not sufficient for proper livelihood, therefore from very beginning majority of households were engaged in non-farm activities. Land sold to Government was only due to compulsion as land owners were forced by the Government orders to acquire the land. Since Government compensation was too low which ranged merely between Rs.16,000 to 36,000 per bigha, land owners try to evade it or sell their land to private parties from whom they get Rs.1,00,000 to Rs. 16,00,000 per bigha. Those land owners who were able to sell their land privately were lucky which is reflected from their life style but contrary to that land owners getting meager land compensation from Government remained poorer and poorer.
Land owners of Dhawan village were extreme unlucky where 32.0 percent land was sold to private buyers and 63.0 percent was sold to Government. When in Shivpuri village 66.0 percent land was sold to private parties and rest 34.00 percent land was bought by the Government. Land owners who got hefty amounts from private buyers were able to enhance their income by investing in income generating activities, when those who got compensation from Government became hand to mouth. Haryana model of land compensation must be adopted by the Government where average value of crop yield is calculated for 30 years with keeping in mind the price escalation. Then farmers are paid annually for 30 years. In this way, slowly farmers switch on to non farm activities and do not fall pray suddenly. (See Table-4)
Before acquisition 35 surveyed households of farmers were having average six bigha of land in Dhawan village, when in Shivpuri village average per household agricultural land among 27.0 households of farmers was 5.5 bigha, which reduced to two and 2.3 bigha after acquisition respectively. In most of the cases the main source of livelihood is no more agriculture, which has shifted to non-farm activities. Even those households which are identified as cultivators are for name sake, their economic condition is deplorable. In few cases where households have more than five bigha, but their agricultural production has gone down due to over whelming urban environment like pollution and congestion. During nights the astray animals (mainly cows) from city enter into the fields and graze away the crops. Thus the remaining agricultural land is awaited to be sold preferably to private buyers if it is spared from Government grabbing by throw away prices (See Table-5).
The compensation money which was received by the land owners after selling their agricultural land to either Government or private buyers was utilized in two major heads i.e. for personal use or construction of their house. After fulfilling their personal needs like construction, marriage ceremonies etc. very few households have also invested their money in livelihood enhancing activities. Since most of the houses were of mud and thatched, they were built pucca. Thus in Dhawan village average 69.0 percent land owners spent their compensation money in personal needs and 31.0 percent land owners spent money in house constructions. In Shivpuri village also about 61.0 percent land owners spent their land compensation money in personal needs whereas 39.90 percent land owners spent their money in house construction. It is worry some that most of the land owners spent their compensation money which was received by them after selling their valuable agricultural land which was the only base of their livelihood, was utilized in fundamental day to day needs. Therefore, it is high time to chalk out the compensation policy by the Government urgently, so that farmer’s livelihood could be saved.(See Table-6)
Income among sample households under different dominant occupations who may also possess some agricultural land varied during a decade or in between before and after land acquisition. In all cases some of households have grown income during a decade. In Dhawan village the income of some households has grown 10.6 percent after acquisition of land, when the growth of income was comparatively more in Shivpuri village i.e. 14.4 percent may be due to comparatively fast urbanization. After acquisition average household per month income of Dhawan and Shivpuri villages was recorded Rs. 4058.00 and Rs. 4470.00 respectively. In Dhawan village the household income grew more than average among business and service occupation only. When in Shivpuri village household income was found growing above the average in all occupations except among business and non agricultural labourers. Cultivators income growth during a decade was above the average growth in Shivpuri village, it is because land owners received a hefty amount of land compensation from private buyers, which is the main reason of fast growth viz-a-viz Dhawan village.(See Table-7)
During survey questions were asked from the sample households about their living condition before and after the acquisition of their agricultural land. Among 35 households who owned/sold or both of Dhawan village reported good living condition by 47.0 percent before acquisition and 53.0 percent reported good living condition after acquisition. It means more than half of the sample households in Dhawan village enjoying better living condition than before even after acquisition. In Shivpuri village only 28.0 percent sample households reported better living condition before acquisition when majority households i.e. 72.0 percent reported better living condition after acquisition. Here it is important to explain that acquisition of land does not take place all of a sudden but a sort of urban environment is created physically and mentally which discourages the agricultural growth. In this process farmers become half hearted towards agriculture and start thinking how to fetch better prices of their land. Dhawan farmers were quite unfortunate that most of their land was acquired by the Government which paid only less than one-tenth as compared to Shivpuri farmers who were quite fortunate by selling to private buyers and getting up to unimaginable Rs. 6.0 million per bigha.(See Table-8)
Though annual income and expenditure reporting is always doubtful even then it is recorded just as approximation. The average annual income of 60 sample households is Rs. 48697 of Dhawan village who spend average Rs. 38286 per annum i.e. 78.62 percent. Almost the same in Shivpuri village where average income and expenditure of 60 sample households is Rs. 53636 and Rs. 42174 respectively which is almost the same 78.63 percent. In most of the cases it doesn’t mean that respondents are saving money, rather many expenses like debt installment, taxes, fee, festival, ceremony and liabilities are not included. Otherwise then how they live malnourished and in poor condition. Out of 60 sample households 6-10 percent households in Dhawan village had taken low interest, average Rs. 24,000 loans for various purposes. Similarly in Shivpuri village out of 60 sample household 9-15 percent households had taken average Rs. 7389 loans at low interest. Most of these loans are under Government schemes that is why interest rate is lowest i.e. between 4-8 percent. Most of these loans are for agriculture, animal husbandry, artisan works and for house construction purposes. If low interest loans are easily available especially to artisans then they can free themselves from the clutches of entrepreneurs who pay least wages and exploit. Low interest loans as micro-financing would help in changing their farm dependence to non farm dependence with suitable income especially in urbanizing villages.(See Table-9)
Overall in 60 sample households each in Dhawan and Shivpuri villages, it reveals that only less than one-fifth households reported that they have some technical skill 18.0 percent in Dhawan and 10.0 percent in Shivpuri villages among their family members, which is quite negligible. Technical skill is most important in villages where agricultural land is no more available as it helps in earning livelihood from non farm activities. Technical skill may be of auto-mechanic, tailoring, handicraft skill chikan, zardozi, manufacturing of candle, agarbatti, handloom, iron work, welding carpentry etc. Therefore Jan Shiksha Sansthan have to work effectively among villagers to impart technical skill so that they may stand on themselves in earning their livelihood. It is irony that in Dhawan and Shivpuri villages majority of households have no technical skill except manual, they are 82.0 and 90.0 percent respectively. Manual workers only can be engaged in agricultural land which is scarce or maximum in house/road construction where labourers are in surplus. It is unfortunate that household with their main occupation as cultivators and animal husbandry in both the villages Dhawan and Shivpuri do not posses any technical skill. Similarly among households of Shivpuri village with their main occupation as business and agricultural labour do not posses any technical skill.
On asking what type of help you expect from Government which may help you in getting your livelihood. Majority expected to get micro-financing (low interest loans) as 58.0 percent from Dhawan and 67.0 percent from Shivpuri village desired from Government. About one-fifth households expected agriculture land to be provided to them by the Government i.e. 28.0 percent in Dhawan and 20.0 percent in Shivpuri villages, which is not practical. Only seven percent households belong to non-agriculture labourer as their main occupation desired training to be given to them in Dhawan village. Majority of households of both the villages were having their account in the bank i.e. 92.0 percent in Dhawan and 78.0 percent in Shivpuri village.(See Table-10)
Health of population is most important for overall development. Health starts from motherhood and child delivery. If child is not born under medical care in hospital then their persistent health complications exist for both mother and child. Unfortunately about half of child births are reported at home under the premature care of Dai who is generally illiterate and does not know even the importance of hygiene. In Dhawan village 48.0 percent and in Shivpuri village 53.0 percent recent births were taken place at home, which is not a good sign when these villages are almost the part of metropolitan city of Lucknow. In Dhawan village 35.0 percent and 17.0 percent and in Shivpuri village 10.0 and 37.0 percent deliveries were performed at Government and private hospitals respectively. Since most of the households are poor, they go to charitable hospitals, which fall under private hospitals. Deliveries of Government hospitals are too low which are yet to be improved.
Similarly for general treatment households reported mostly going to quacks rather to Government or private hospitals, which is again a matter of worry, despite of huge investment is done in Government medical system. In Dhawan village 35.0 percent reported visiting Government hospitals, 40.0 percent to private hospitals and 42.0 percent to quacks, when Shivpuri this proportion was 22.0, 17.0 and 61.0 percent . (See Table-11)
For over all development educational level is most important as it enhances quality of human being by which they perform quite well in all sphere of life. Being adjacent and becoming part of Lucknow metropolis, both Dhawan and Shivpuri villages have impressive literacy rate which is 80.0 percent in each village respectively. However literacy rate is only the indication that a person can read and write, not the level of education or level of enlightenment. However, literacy among females is comparatively less than male counterparts, which is 78.0 percent in Dhawan and 72.01 percent in Shivpuri village. Overall 40.0 percent in Dhawan and 32.2 percent in Shivpuri village are students out of their total population. In Shivpuri village, females are behind the male counterpart than Dhawan village among school going children. About one-fifth of the population is primary pass, in which females are a head than the males. However, middle pass are one-fourth in Dhawan village where females are a head than the males. In Shivpuri village middle pass are quite less i.e. only 14.0 percent and there females are behind the males. Only 10.0 percent people are high school in Dhawan village and only five percent in Shivpuri village where females are almost half of the males. Similarly intermediate pass population in Dhawan village is only four percent and in Shivpuri village only one percent where also females proportion is almost half than their counterpart males. However, Graduate pass in Dhawan village are five percent and females are also slightly more than males, otherwise in Shivpuri no one was found Graduate in our sample survey. Post Graduates, Technical Diploma/Degree holders are quite negligible in Dhawan village and in Shivpuri village all these degree holders are absent. We can see the trend that after middle education the percentage goes on falling sharply specially among females, as the importance of education and also availability of affordable education goes on declining in lower strata of society. (See Table-12)
Housing condition is also most important as it reflects the living condition of households. In both the villages about 80.0 percent houses are pucca in Dhawan and 98.0 percent in Shivpuri. Households belonging to animal husbandry, business and service as the main occupation have cent percent their pucca houses in both the villages. About two and three rooms are in houses belonging to sample households of both Dhawan and Shivpuri villages respectively. Maximum five rooms are in Shivpuri village belonging to households engaged mainly in animal husbandry, while maximum four rooms are there in Dhawan village belonging to service class households. Only 25.0 percent houses of respondents in Dhawan village and 22.0 percent houses in Shivpuri village have flush latrine in their premises. There are no latrines in the premises of households belonging to cultivators, animal husbandry, agricultural labourers of Dhawan village. Agricultural labourers of Shivpuri village also don’t have flush latrine in their premises. Provision of Bath rooms in the sample household premises are in 22.0 percent houses in Dhawan village and 52.0 percent in Shivpuri village. Cultivators of Dhawan village and agricultural labourers of Shivpuri village do not have bath rooms in their house premises. Drainage problem is a major problem of both the sample village, especially when it is a rainy season. However about 56.0 percent sample households of Dhawan village and 42.0 percent of Shivpuri village reported that their houses are connected with pucca drains. Those houses which are without pucca drains create drain flood affecting the entire neighbourhood. Hygienic condition is extremely poor in both the villages, where a lot of efforts are required while making them urbanized. (See Table -13)
Conclusion and Suggestions
Two sample villages namely Dhawan and Shivpuri were identified. Dhawan village is located about two kms. away from Faizabad road, which is partially urbanized, whereas Shivpuri village is located along Faizabad road which is almost urbanized. According to our survey most of the agricultural land of Dhawan village is forcibly purchased by the Government at a very nominal compensation as compared to market cost. In Shivpuri village most of the agriculture land is purchased privately and money is paid to farmer which is according to the market rate. Government rate and market rate varies between Rs. 16000-36000/- to Rs. 100,000-16,00,000/- respectively (per bigha/20 biswa).
Since there is no urban policy, wherever market economy is growing the land cost is increasing with the process of urbanization which is generally observed around metropolitan cities, while ignoring the small and medium towns. Prime agricultural land is seriously threatened around metropolitan cities and farmers are simply dislodged from their traditional occupation i.e. agriculture. The agricultural land which is most important to feed million of people is gradually reducing. The ideal situation could have been to spread urbanization in all regions to stop metropolitan expansion. Equal distribution of urbanization would have the advantage for utilizing the uncultivable land for urban expansion.
Prime agricultural land has to be protected and urban regional disparity has to be minimized by controlling the unnecessary metropolitan growth. If situation becomes so compelled to acquire the land by the Government then farmers have to be paid a suitable compensation for their valuable land, so that they may comfortably be settled down during at least four to five decades and gradually switch over to some other non farm livelihood.
The following key suggestions are made to resettle the landless and marginal farmers of rural-urban fringe :
i) For compensation Haryana model should be adopted, in which farmers get crop value according to the cost escalation for 30 years.
ii) Working age population should be identified and they should be trained in non-farm activities so that they may change their source of livelihood. Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) can serve the purpose.
iii) Similar to Kisan Credit Card (KCC) Shilpkar Credit Card (SCC) must be introduced to avoid procedural complication like in SHG formation etc.
iv) School age children should be given scholarship up to High School to compulsorily go to school and desist of becoming the child labour.
References and Additional Thinking
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• Bryant, C.R., I.R. Russwurm & A.G. Mclellan (1982), The City’s Countryside: Land and its Management in the Rural-urban Fringe, Longman, London
• Das Gupta, K. (2000), Is the Joyride Over? Down to Earth, Centre for Science and Environment, Vol. 9(6), New Delhi
• Fazal, S (1998), Agricultural Production and Price Mechanism, Chugh Publications, Allahabad
• Fazal, S. (2001) The Need For Preserving Our Farm Lands. A Case Study from a Predominantly Agrarian Economy. Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 55, No.1, Elsevier Science Publication, United Kingdom.
• Jafri, S.S.A.(2003), India’s Rural Habitat in Need of Rejuvenation, Geographical Review of India, Vol.65, No.2, Calcutta
• Jafri, S.S.A.(2006), Levels of Civic amenities in Urban Settlements of Avadh Region of Uttar Pradesh, Urban Panorama, Vol.V, No.2, Lucknow
• Jafri,S.S.A. (2008), Urbanization in Uttar Pradesh, Urban Panorama, Vol.VII, No.2, Lucknow
• Master Plan 2021, Lucknow, Town and Country Planning Department, LDA, Lucknow
• Nangia, S. (1976), Delhi Metropolitan Region, a study in settlement geography, K.B. Publishing House, New Delhi.
• Ranade, A. and Dev, M.S. (1998) Agriculture and Rural Development, India development Report, Oxford University Press, New Delhi
• Shafi, M. (1969) Land Use Planning land Classification and Land Capability: Methods and Techniques, The Geographer, Aligarh
• Schenk, H. (1997), The Rurban Fringe: a Central area Between Region and City: the Case of Bangalore, India. in: M. Chatterji & Y. Kaizhang, Regional Science in Developing Countries, New, MacMillan, New York
• Thakur, B. (1991), Land Utilization and Urbanization, The Rural-Urban Fringe, Deep & Deep, New Delhi.
• Yadav, C.S. (1987), Rural-urban Fringe. Concept Publication, New Delhi
(The views expressed in the write-up are personal and do not re?ect the official policy or position of the organization.)